Abstract Objective To reconstruct the onset date and evolutionary history of the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in Ethiopia – one of the earliest recorded subtype C epidemics in the world. Methods Evolutionary parameters including origin and demographic growth patterns were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent-based approach under either strict or relaxed molecular clock models. Results Bayesian evolutionary analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor date of with three distinct epidemic growth phases. Regression analysis of root-to-tip distances revealed a highly similar estimate for the origin of the clade. Conclusion Reconstruction of the epidemic history in Ethiopia revealed that subtype C likely originated from either a single lineage or multiple descendents in the late s or early s where it grew exponentially throughout the mid s and early s, corresponding to a wave of urbanization and migration. In light of these findings we suggest that subtype C strains were circulating at least a decade before previous estimates and the first recognition of symptomatic patients in Ethiopia. HIV-1, evolution, subtype C, coalescent, Ethiopia Introduction HIV-1 infections in Ethiopia were first documented in a young man and woman in in Addis Ababa when serum samples of hospitalized patients with Bell’s palsy were tested for anti-HIV-1 antibodies [ 1 ]. Subsequently, the first clinically overt case of AIDS was diagnosed in [ 2 ]. The explosion of HIV into a major AIDS epidemic is almost solely attributed to subtype C with transmission largely sustained through heterosexual contact and to a lesser extent mother-to-child transmission. Phylogenetic analyses have also revealed that two genetically distinct viruses co-circulate in similar prevalence in all geographic regions and risk populations [ 5 , 6 ].
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Omer Gaafar ElSouri Introduction by the translator: This article is a detailed story of a book which, in its time, influenced the Eritrean National Movement in a deep negative way and caused schisms which kept developing, morphing and clustering until today. It details the story and the circumstances that led to the appearance of the book and the reactions which followed its publication.
It is the history which until now stood overlooked and neglected by History. Eritreans are not known for the love of reading books. Nevertheless, the Eritrean National Movement have, ironically, fallen, at a time in its history, victim to two contaminant books and got infected and negatively affected to the core thereby. The two books, published early at the beginnings of the Eritrean Armed Struggle, succeeded in driving a series of wedges between the components of the movement, and perpetuated discord and fragmentation among them.
The material and the contents of these two coordinated books were based upon identical false claims aiming at the stirring of sectarian suspicions and affecting confessional feuds. The effects of these evil works are still echoing in the Eritrean collective memory with reverberations working havoc to this day. The two books, displayed the same aim and spirit in spite of their difference in language and style. It is impossible for one who reads and compares the two books to escape concluding that one is, definitely, a re-arrangement, rephrasing and compression of the other.
This work appeared for the first time in but was again published in several Sudanese websites and Arabic speaking Eritrean websites in May of with a word from the author by way of introduction. The posting of this article in Awate. Perhaps, the usefulness of reading this article is in its suggestion to the new Eritrean readers of asking themselves a question their predecessors and brothers avoided asking long time ago, at the distribution of the two venomous books:
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The country is agrarian and the economy depends on subsistence agriculture. In recent years, crops have been poor because of drought. Approximately 85 percent of the population lives in rural areas. The settled population is scattered, making delivery of health and social services difficult. History and Politics Ethiopia traces its history as a country back 3, years and is the only African country that has never been colonized.
In the mid ‘s, the government of Haile Selassie was overthrown and a repressive regime was established. Recent years have seen internal wars for liberation and ethnic conflicts.
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Now they speak Amharic and Tigrinya , both Semitic languages. Their liturgical language is Ge’ez , also Semitic. Oral traditions[ edit ] Many of the Beta Israel accounts of their own origins stress that they stem from the very ancient migration of some portion of the Tribe of Dan to Ethiopia, led it is said by sons of Moses, perhaps even at the time of the Exodus, or perhaps due to later crises in Judea, e.
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Former inmates decry forced circumcision by Ronnie Layoo Gulu- Former inmates at Gulu Main Prison have accused the authorities of circumcising them against their will. The inmates say the prison wardens force them to get circumcised, saying the move is to enhance good sanitation and health living. Speaking to the Daily Monitor recently, Mr Richard Okello, 22, who was remanded in the prison for alleged assault for three months, said the prison warders forced him to get circumcised.
He said he was exposed to infection since they did not provide him treatment. Another former inmate, Mr David Ojok, who claimed he was also forced to circumcise, said proper sanitation, which should guarantee proper healing, was not provided. However, the regional prison commander, Mr Kenneth Mugabiirwe, dismissed the allegations.
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THIS my friend is the difference. Most also assume that he is African american and act scared around him but DC does have alot of crazy ghetto people in it. I think time heals all wounds, especially since my girlfriend is Ethiopian and her family loves me …………… Nov 28th, at 7: Native American, European, Asian, all a of these are present in most African Americans in varying degrees, Including yours truely Trinidadian.
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Samuel Goodman Sam is just a regular, normal man who humbly requests: Please don’t shoot the messenger. One interesting effect of the obesity epidemic has been an increase in the desirability of Asian women. Thirty years ago, nailing an Asian chick was a consolation prize for a white guy who struck out with his own kind. Sociologists talk about all sorts of possible explanations: All these explanations are probably wrong.
Why does a dog lick its genitals? Thin Asian Girls are Upwardly Mobile In our society, whites are at the top of the social ladder and people naturally want to marry up.
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The name “Ethiopia” derives from the Greek ethio , meaning “burned” and pia , meaning “face”: Aeschylus described Ethiopia as a “land far off, a nation of black men. These conceptions of Ethiopia were geographically vague.
History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Ethiopia was home to some of the earliest hominid populations and possibly the region where Homo erectus evolved and expanded out of Africa to populate Eurasia million years ago. The most notable paleoanthropological find in the country was “Lucy,” a female Australopithicus afarensis discovered in and referred to as Dinqnesh (“you.
Is the town of Adwa growing in Leaps and bounds? It is exciting to know that the honorable Prime Minister of Ethiopia, Ato Haile Mariam Desalgne has laid down a commemorative monument dedicated to the establishment of the Adwa Pan-African University years after this historic battle. The stone monument was erected very close to the statue and burial place of the known Ethiopian hero, Ras Alula Aga Nega.
It has several credits locally and globally, and go on with future vision indicators that training and development become an exigent issue and strategic option in organizations, or rather one of features of life. The passing of Mehret is a major loss for her immediate and extended families and it is with deep sorrow that I am extending my condolences to her husband, Beraki Gebreselassie, her children, and her sisters Ararat Iyob and Ruth Iyob, and the rest of her brothers and sisters.
Proposed Language Reform for Ethiopia meticulously and I gather painstakingly diagnosed the problem and shortcomings of the Ethiopian written system commonly known as Ethiopic or Geez in particular and the language in general, and came up with a radical departure from the traditional Ethiopian orthography. The existence of too many word derivations, widespread spelling inconsistencies and a large number of characters in the Ethiopic writing system means only a small fraction of words in Ethio Semitic languages can be entered in any dictionary let alone to be ordered alphabetically.
And facing the Border Commission, at the outset, Ethiopia was dealing with colonial treaties of for the central sector , for the western sector , and for the eastern sector , all treaties that were long dead and also made null and void by Italy when it temporarily occupied Ethiopia from to On top of this, in due course of deliberations by the Border Commission, there were so many confusing names of places and rivers that were presented by the two parties as part of their documentary evidences or exhibits.
Ato Kidane describes his varied experiences in beautiful, lucid English, and indeed it is a credit to Ethiopia and its educational system that the United Nations looked to her for qualified people to serve in other African countries. Attorney, Foreign Policy Advisor Fasil Amdetsion is an Ethiopian-American lawyer with expertise in international law and international affairs.
He has spoken or authored pieces on international affairs, international law and the Nile, education and development in Africa, and modern African history.
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Join the conversation on Twitter and Facebook. Closed Messay Getahun is the director of the film ‘Lambadina. Nonetheless he eventually finds refuge in a home and grows up to fall in love with the daughter in the new family Ruth , and eventually emigrates to the U. The film takes us from Addis Ababa to Los Angeles, and shows the resilience of a young man overcoming various obstacles in life.
He attended Texas Tech, studying computer graphics as well as human sciences and Family Studies. Subsequently he moved to California.
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The name of the dynasty is derived from the Cushitic-speaking Agaw of northern Ethiopia. They failed to complete the return trip. When Emperor Susenyos I converted to Roman Catholicism in , years of revolt and civil unrest followed, resulting in thousands of deaths. In June , Fasilides , Susenyos’ son, declared the state religion again to be the Ethiopian Orthodoxy. He expelled the Jesuit missionaries and other Europeans.
The latter polity had come into existence in when Muhammed Jasa moved his capital from Harar to Aussa Asaita with the split of the Adal Sultanate into the Sultanate of Aussa and the Sultanate of Harar. At some point after , the Sultanate of Aussa declined and temporarily came to an end in conjunction with Imam Umar Din bin Adam ‘s recorded ascension to the throne. It was thereafter ruled by his Mudaito Dynasty.
Between and , Ethiopia experienced a period of isolation referred to as the Zemene Mesafint or “Age of Princes”. Ethiopian isolationism ended following a British mission that concluded an alliance between the two nations, but it was not until that Ethiopia was completely united and the power in the Emperor restored, beginning with the reign of Tewodros II.